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Educated Women in Palestine Remaining Unemployed

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There’s a global trend that more women are pursuing university degrees than men. And in Palestine and the greater Arab world, the same reigns true. The World Bank states that the ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment in the region is 108%. And according to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, during the scholastic year of 2012-2013 in Palestine, 81,052 males were pursing higher education degrees at universities versus 120,256 female students who enrolled in university.

While this all sounds extremely promising for the women in the Arab world, a report from the World Bank entitled Jobs for Shared Prosperity: Time for Action in the Middle East and North Africa states that 3 out of 4 women in the Middle East remain outside the labor force. And a report from Brookings (Arab Youth: Missing Educational Foundations for a Productive Life?) confirms that “only about 18% of working-age Arab women actually have jobs.”

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(Click this chart to enlarge the data)

In Palestine in particular, in 2012, a mere 12% of women were working and engaged in the labor force. The chart below, from Brookings, highlights just how poorly Palestine preforms. Palestine ties for the lowest participation rate in the workforce along with Jordan and Algeria, but has the highest female tertiary education enrollment – outperforming countries like Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Lebanon and Bahrain!

Studies report that women reinvest 90% of any income in their family, versus an average 30% among men. In order to effectively leverage this opportunity and help lead the greater Middle East towards a brighter future, women need comprehensive support. So what is being done to help these females not only engage in the workforce but also succeed in it? At TYO, we strive to ensure that women have the right to thrive:

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Learn more about the importance of women’s empowerment at TYO and why it’s so crucial!

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Youth in Focus: An Interview with Noor A.

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Noor A. was born and raised in Nablus. She graduated from the Education College at An Najah National University in 2014 with a bachelor’s degree in English Language Teaching Methods.

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Core Volunteer Noor enjoys role-playing with Julian in the Imagination room.

What made you interested in TYO’s Youth Service Learning Program? Have you volunteered elsewhere before?

I have volunteered with a few other organizations before. An Najah requires all students to complete community service hours before graduating, so during university I had volunteered with the Red Crescent assisting at an elderly home and I had also volunteered teaching Arabic in a public school. However, when I reached my last year in university and began looking for work as graduation grew closer, I realized that I needed even more experience as a fresh graduate entering the job market. One of my mentors at An Najah advised me to apply to volunteer at TYO.

What do you hope to do as a career and how do you think volunteering at TYO will help you?

I want to work in education. Originally, as much as I enjoyed working with children, I was very anxious about it. I was worried about teaching and dealing with very young children in the right way; they are so sensitive and complex at that age, so teaching them is a huge responsibility. TYO certainly increases volunteers’ self-confidence by fully engaging us in classroom activities, helping us develop our personalities and trust with the children, and encouraging and empowering us to bring new ideas and activities to class.

What is the greatest challenge for youth like you in the current labor market?

Our lack of work experience, as well as the pervasiveness of wasta, discourages many youth and often makes us feel  that our four years of university are not valuable at all when applying for jobs. You see many youth who drop out of university as soon as they find work because they do not believe that their diploma will make a difference in the job market.

What do you think your generation can do to overcome that challenge?

I have not lost hope in finding a job because I believe that my generation of Palestinians can and should make the change in our lack of experience and how employers view our abilities. I always try to make use of my free time by learning something useful or volunteering in order to build my knowledge base and professional network.

If there was one skill you wish you had (English, IT, etc) what would it be and why?

I want to speak English fluently and be able to hold a conversation, since that is the biggest demand in the labor market. I was very interested in working with TYO’s international interns as a way to work closely with native English speakers. This session, I am working with the morning early childhood education program but hope to work with the Intern program in the future.

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Celebrating World Water Day in Nablus, Palestine

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Today we celebrate World Water Day 2015, with the specific theme of water and sustainable development. We celebrate and reflect on the centrality of water in the rhythm of our daily lives. For some, it is a day to celebrate the importance and abundance of water in our day-to-day routines; for others, it is an important day to reflect on the increasingly pressing urgency of addressing issues like water scarcity and cleanliness, and confronting how we will manage water access in the future.

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TYO Core Child program kids play a game of over-under water balloon pass.

The Middle East is a region specifically challenged by water issues. The supply, control, and allocation of water are critical in defining the region’s political landscape and are a pressing concern for Palestine. Unlike the water challenges faced by other countries in the region, the primary issue in Palestine is not water shortage, but rather control and allocation of water resources. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that 100 liters of water per person per day are needed to ensure that basic needs are met and water-related health risks are kept to a minimum. Though water aquifers in the West Bank store enough water to supply the population with that amount, West Bank Palestinians connected to the water grid receive an erratic supply of about 73 liters per person per day (even less in the northern West Bank), and those off of the water grid have inconsistent access to about 20-50 liters per person per day.

Water access issues are particularly acute in Nablus neighborhoods and refugee camps. We interviewed TYO’s Suhad Jabi who reflected from personal experience on the challenges of water access in Nablus:

In Nablus, the municipality provides a specific schedule for water access for each neighborhood. For example, in my neighborhood, water is available twice per week at a specific time, and everyone must fill their water tanks at the scheduled time in order to ensure their supply for the week. If there is a leak or other issue with your water tank – which happens very often due to lack of proper infrastructure – you entirely lose access to your water supply. In the summer, it is extremely challenging; our water use increases, but the supply remains far below meeting our basic needs. To exacerbate those issues, political tensions (most often disagreements over payment of water taxes) cause the water supply to Nablus or specific neighborhoods to be cut off and civilians to suffer.

Water allocation issues are particularly severe for those living in the refugee camps, where water access infrastructure is even weaker, and the extremely high population density is not compensated for by an increased water supply. Inconsistent and limited water access, exacerbated by small and densely populated spaces, causes many families to neglect important hygiene practices, dramatically increasing health risks. Something as simple as giving your child a bath becomes a daily challenge because of a) the scarcity and inconsistency of water, and b) the high cost and inconsistent availability of electricity to heat the water. The lack of essential resources hinders many from making responsible and healthy choices.

The UN’s campaign for World Water Day 2015 states –

Water is health.

Water in urbanization.

Water is food.

Water is equality.

We could not agree more, and at TYO we believe that every individual has a basic human right to a safe, accessible, and adequate water supply. In our Core Child education program, we teach children about the importance of basic hygiene routines as well as an economic and appropriate use of water for those. Through learning to appreciate health and hygiene routines, the children learn to value their own health and themselves.

At TYO, we also believe that our children deserve not only to have their basic water needs met, but also to enjoy and celebrate water in their lives. Nablus does not offer public parks or pools where families can enjoy water activities. However, each summer at TYO, we offer to bring our children to a local private park hosting an indoor and outdoor pool.

Children enjoy playing in a pool as part of TYO's summertime "water day".

Children enjoy playing in a pool as part of TYO’s summertime “water day”.

Said enjoys a water relay race.

Said enjoys a water relay race.

We also host what we lovingly call “Water Day” in which kids are encouraged to play with and enjoy water in a variety of ways. For many of our children whose experience with water access and cleanliness has been very singular and negative, the day offers an alternative and positive water experience. As the weather begins to warm up in Nablus, we cannot wait for our next water day to come around.

From Nablus, Palestine, we wish a happy World Water Day to children and families around the world!

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The Multigenerational Approach: Serving Children’s Support Networks

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The World Bank has released a new report entitled: Stepping up Early Childhood Development. Education advocates all over the world talk about the importance of investing in Early Childhood Development (ECD) and that it is “essential for a child’s growth and development. The returns to those interventions also tend to be higher than the returns to investments in human capital taking place later in life.” But more people are pushing for multigenerational approaches to ECD – to best support children, their support networks must also be empowered.

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The report explains that “the wellbeing and involvement of families play a critical role in addressing children’s holistic development needs because young children depend entirely on their families and spend the most time with them in the home environment.” But how can organizations provide support to children through multigenerational interventions? The World Bank report shares these four of many ways we can approach families:

  1. Maternal Education: When females attain high levels of education, it benefits their future children when they become mothers. Educated women are able to make smart decisions about their lives and in the lives of their children.
  2. Family Planning: According to the World Health Organization, a woman’s ability to space and limit her pregnancies has a direct impact on her health and well-being as well as on the outcome of each pregnancy.
  3. Education on Child Development: Reaching parents through parenting support programs and home-visits can promote early stimulation, optimal caregiving, and healthy feeding practices and thereby improve outcomes for children. These programs can deliver messages to parents about the health, growth, and overall development of young children.
  4. Prevention and Treatment of Parental Depression: When parents are depressed, it is likely to have adverse effects on ECD and quality of parenting and therefore treatment of parental depression is important. This is especially prevalent for populations who face regular trauma.

TYO’s multigenerational approach targeting children, youth and parents – makes it one of the most unique centers in the Northern West Bank, tackling these issues head-on in Palestine. The Core Child Program for early childhood education, The Women’s Group for mothers, and the TYO model for family intervention ensure that TYO can meet the needs of children and their support networks.

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5 Tips for Dealing with “Acting Out” in Your Classroom

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We have had an exciting and productive start to our Core Child Program, both our morning program for 4-5 year olds and now our 6-8 year old after school program. But of course, no classes are without challenges, and one specific challenge that all teachers face – no matter their years of experience or expertise – is dealing appropriately and productively with “acting out” behavior.

We use “acting out” to refer to a wide range of behaviors exhibited by children in the classroom – for example, refusing to participate in an activity, raising their voice, hitting, distracting classmates, and engaging in activities other than the class activity – all of which are indicative of deeper issues that the child may be struggling with and his or her resulting feelings of frustration, anger, sadness, or boredom. To put it shortly, “acting out” can refer to a number of different behaviors with countless different root causes. For teachers, that is the most important point to remember: the type of “acting out” behavior, and the reasons, are so varied that there is no one-size-fits-all solution.

Dealing productively with challenging behavior in the classroom is not intuitive to most. For that reason, our Core Program teachers and volunteers undergo a rigorous pre-session training, part of which involves role-playing in-class ‘acting out’ scenarios.

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Psychosocial Program Manager Suhad Jabi roleplays a classroom scenario with in-training Core volunteers.

The role-play in our recent PM volunteer training revealed the important difference between understanding how to handle “acting out” versus being able to implement those ideas on the spot during class. In that moment, it is helpful to have a few key tips ready at hand. Last week, our Core team reflected on our most tried and true techniques.

From TYO’s Core Program teachers, here are 5 tips for dealing with “acting out” in your classroom:

1. Verbally acknowledge the child’s behavior and validate his or her feelings. When a child is acting out, he or she is trying to send you an important message about a particular need or desire. It is important to acknowledge the behavior, thereby acknowledging that the child has something important to express. The best way to do that is through clear and direct language: “Karim, I see that you do not want to participate in our game. I also see that you are very upset, and it makes me sad to see that. How can I help you?”

2. Encourage clear communication from the child. You have clearly communicated what you observe and feel to the child, so now encourage him or her to do the same. Encourage the child to express him/herself using similar “I-statements,” for example “I miss my friend Baha, who is in a different class. I do not want to play with our class because I do not know anyone here.” It is important for you to truly listen and engage with the child to understand his or her needs; do not rush the conversation. That shows the child that his/her negative feelings are normal and okay, and that communicating clearly with words will gain the child the attention s/he desires.

3. Empower the child with choices. Acting out is often about wanting to exert control over a situation where a child does not have the options s/he desires. We experience this acutely at TYO, where many of our children come from challenging home environments with limited or no options; for example, children must either stay home in small, enclosed spaces with little room to play, or else go out in the streets where the nature of play is aggressive and dangerous. Offering alternative options is hugely empowering for our children. In the example above, you could say “Karim, I know that you want to see your friend Baha. If you want, we can either visit his class for 5 minutes right now, or we can give both of you 30 minutes after classes to play in the playground together.” The child is now empowered to choose between two positive options, rather than facing a singular and frustrating situation.

4. Bring yourself to the child’s level — literally. Again, dealing with “acting out” behavior is all about acknowledging the importance of the child and the validity of his or her feelings. Body language is just as important as words. Kneel down to the eye level of the child while you try to understand his or her needs and offer options; it sends a message of respect – that you value what the child has to say, and that you want to work together to agree on a solution.

5. Follow up with positive reinforcement. Sustained attention throughout the process – from acknowledging the behavior, to offering choices, to agreeing on and implementing a solution – shows the child that clear verbal communication can also win him or her the attention s/he desires. In the future, when the child verbally expresses his or her needs rather than acting out, offer clear and specific praise: “Thank you Karim for using words to express what you need. It makes me happy because now I can help you.”

We hope you find these tips helpful! Comment below to let TYO’s Core team know how these techniques worked in your classroom and what other strategies you use.

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3 Important Lessons on Social Emotional Learning (SEL)

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Every year, thousands of studies, research papers, conference talks, and dissertations come out on education. Of those thousands, only a few make their way into the hands – and into the actual practice – of teachers, school administrators, and policy makers.

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At the end of 2014, the American Educational Research Association published a list of its 10 most-read education articles. Using that list, NPR came out with a summary of the 5 key lessons education research taught us in 2014. Among those lessons are strategies for teaching math to struggling elementary-grade students, as well as research on the effectiveness in raising test scores of aligning curricula with a set of standards.

NPR’s fifth lesson – “What SEL-based curricula may and may not be able to do” – caught our attention at TYO. Social emotional learning (SEL) is an education approach focused on growing students’ social and emotional awareness as a way of teaching basic life skills. Key elements include acknowledging and accepting one’s emotions, learning how to manage those emotions, understanding oneself in the context of social relationships (family, friends, school), developing interpersonal skills, and promoting a positive sense of self in order to make healthy and responsible decisions.

TYO’s Core Child program curriculum echoes many of the same motivations. Our Core curriculum is designed to promote the emotional, cognitive, and physical development of our 4-8 year old students. The curriculum promotes social and emotional awareness as a way of empowering children to become active and responsible members of their families and communities.

NPR references a study published last spring in the American Educational Research Journal in which researchers tested whether SEL could improve student performance in math and reading. Data was collected from 2,904 children across 276 classrooms and 24 U.S. schools. The results? Classes where teachers taught an SEL curriculum exactly the way researchers had designed it performed significantly higher on math and reading tests than the control group. However, on average, the students in SEL-based classes (including classrooms where the curriculum was not implemented perfectly or consistently) performed the same as the control group. In summary, the research indicates that SEL can have high academic returns, but only when teachers are well-trained in implementation of an SEL curriculum.

TYO’s Core teachers, along with our Psychosocial Program Manager Suhad Jabi, discussed this lesson about SEL and the implications for our own classroom practices. Reflecting on our own experience implementing TYO’s non-formal curriculum, we came up with a few of our own lessons on SEL.

From TYO’s Core team, here are 3 things you need to know about SEL –

1. SEL requires extensive training of teachers. SEL, and similar holistic education approaches, are a relatively young movement. Therefore, most current teachers have not experienced SEL as students and hence struggle not to revert to more traditional, strictly academic techniques in the classroom. Overcoming that bias requires extensive training with frequent follow-up. In TYO’s Core program, our teachers and classroom volunteers undergo an intensive training in our psychosocial non-formal approach involving role-play of specific classroom scenarios. Our Core team also participates in frequent follow-up trainings and discussions to better cement their understanding of our psychosocial approach.

2. The biggest returns of SEL are long-term. The study above tests only the short-term effects of SEL on students’ performance. However, in our experience, the greatest gains in promoting the social and emotional development of young children are long-term. Parents of students in our Core 4-5 year old program have reported, years later, that their children who are now enrolled in standard elementary school classes are more engaged and positive in the classroom than their classmates, and additionally gain more satisfaction from their academic achievements.

3. The goal of SEL is not only to increase academic performance, but also to encourage children to be active and responsible citizens of their communities. Critics of SEL worry that the time and focus spent on developing social and emotional skills may be at the expense of students’ performance in academic subjects. Not only does the research above suggest otherwise, but the critique itself misses the point of SEL. Through SEL, students not only become better learners, but they also become better communicators, listeners, friends, community members – the list goes on. In TYO’s Core program, through developing awareness of their own emotions, children build their empathy towards others; through learning about respectful communication and relationships, children learn how to deal with difficult situations in constructive and ethical ways – not only in school, but also at home and in their communities.

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Youth in Focus: An Interview with Anwar J.

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Anwar J. is from Asira Ash-Shamaliya, a town just north of Nablus.  In 2011, she graduated from An Najah National University with a B.A. in Arabic Language. She has since worked in a variety of positions in both the private sector and Palestinian media outlets.

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Anwar helps students complete an art activity to learn the Arabic letter “del”.

What sparked your interest in TYO’s Youth Service Learning Program? How did you hear about the program?

I heard about TYO’s Youth Service Learning Program while I was working for a local television station. A friend of mine who previously worked as a Core teacher at TYO visited me at work and talked about her experience at the center. Hearing directly from her about the impact that the Core program has on children and the important role volunteers play in the classroom, I was immediately interested in applying. It also sounded like the experience and knowledge I would gain from volunteering could help me obtain a better job than the one I held at the time. Soon after our conversation, I visited TYO to apply.

What are your career goals and how do you think TYO’s Youth Service Learning program will help you reach those?

I love working with children, and I believe strongly that children here have a right to a better education, so I am interested in teaching at the pre-school or elementary-grade level. I joined TYO because I believe in the approach to education here, especially the emphasis on growing a child’s personality. Through volunteering at TYO, I gained greater confidence in the importance of learning through play for a child’s mental and physical development. I plan to take what I learn here and transfer that to my future work in the classroom.

On a more general level, volunteering at TYO has certainly made me a more patient and understanding person, especially when it comes to listening to and understanding children’s needs.

What is the greatest challenge that youth like you face in the current labor market?

In university, I was so focused on completing my degree requirements that I was not thinking about my next step. When I graduated, I faced the harsh reality that most graduates face here – we graduate lacking work experience, making it almost impossible to get accepted for any job or internship post-graduation.

Also, gender issues are a serious and deeply-rooted problem in our society. Employers see female applicants in a different way than male applicants, and even if you are able to find a job as a woman, you face fear of workplace harassment and lack of safety. That is why many women tend towards certain “safe” positions, and ultimately limit themselves, rather than going after more challenging or interesting work that they are well-qualified for.

What do you think your generation can do to overcome that challenge?

Regarding the issue of work experience, students need to actively focus on adding experience to their CVs early on in college; additionally, college professors and mentors need to emphasize the importance of practical experience to complement our degrees.

Regarding the issues for women, I think ultimately we limit ourselves when we carry that fear. It is tough to say how we can overcome that – even if I were to fight against gender discrimination in the workplace, my family and community would still stand in my way.

If there was one skill you could improve (English, IT, etc.), what would it be and why?

English has been my weakest subject throughout my life, and I did not practice enough when I was younger. I am aware now that English is a global language and one required for most jobs here. I hope to improve my English through interacting with the foreigners and staff at TYO.

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International Women’s Day 2015

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Int'l Women's Day 2015

Learn more about International Women’s Day!

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Youth in Focus: An Interview with Ola A.

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Ola A. is a new volunteer in our Core Spring 2015 session. She lives in one of TYO’s target Nablus neighborhoods for the Core Child program. Ola graduated from An Najah National University in 2014 with a bachelor’s degree in English Language and Literature.

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Ola helps students create mosaics during their Arabic rotation.

What sparked your interest in TYO’s Youth Service Learning program? Have you volunteered elsewhere before?

Because I majored in English, I have many previous experiences volunteering with NGOs in Nablus that offer English language services; for example, I used to volunteer teach English language classes for adults. I heard about TYO’s Youth Service Learning program through my brother Mujahed who was a student in the International Intern program. He spoke so highly of his interaction with the teachers and volunteers at TYO that I decided to apply.

All of my previous volunteer experiences were with adults, so TYO is my first opportunity to work with young children. When I applied and attended the first training, it was clear to me that this program would be an exciting and challenging new experience. At TYO, I enjoy the opportunity to develop my work personality and build interpersonal skills that will help me in my future career.

What are your career plans, and how do you think volunteering in TYO’s Core Child program will help you?

Originally, I was planning to be an Arabic-English translator for a local company because it was the logical next step after majoring in English. However, after joining TYO’s volunteer program, I have developed a strong interest in working with children. Right now, I am interested in finding a part-time job in a local preschool to further practice and develop the skills I am learning at TYO and better understand early childhood education in Palestine. I have seen how difficult and unsupportive the preschool experience is for my nephews and nieces, and I want to be part of making that experience better. I am interested in recreating TYO’s model of education in Nablus’s preschools, making them a place where children are building both their basic cognitive skills and their personalities.

What is the greatest challenge youth like you face in the current labor market?

In one phrase, lack of experience. The fact that most of us graduate with little to no work experience on our CVs is a huge factor in unemployment issues in Palestine. Even if we do find a job, we enter our first job with no training or previous experience in the labor market, which means a) we are not prepared for success in our first job, and b) we are offered very low salaries that barely cover the cost of transportation to and from work.

What do you think your generation can do to overcome that challenge?

Volunteering is key. Before we graduate and enter the labor market, we need to gain experience and use internship and volunteer opportunities as a way to begin networking. Also, I would advise first-year college students to talk to professors and role models in their field of interest to better understand the needs of the market and what additional skills they should build to be more employable in their field by the time they graduate. When I was in university, no one provided me with that information. I decided to study English Literature because I had heard that English would be necessary for any job, but I was not 100% sure that it was the right decision. I am glad that I did move forward with it, but looking back, I also wish I had taken more work opportunities to develop my personality and soft skills.

If there was one skill you wish you could improve, what would it be and why?

Definitely IT. Technology is a huge part of our lives now, and it is something you must be comfortable with in any job. I have tried developing my computer and technology skills with the help of my friend who majored in IT, but I want more opportunities to learn and practice.

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From Nablus Preschools to TYO: An Interview with Core Teacher Fawz Jabi

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It has been a great first two weeks with our 4-5 year olds in the Core Child program. Though there were a few tears on the first day, the children were all smiles by the end of last week; on Thursday afternoon, as each class took off towards the buses, they eagerly showed off their many art creations on the theme of our second week: community and family.

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Core teachers Fawz and Ahmad work on a family tree activity for their class.

It has also been exciting to welcome our two new Core teachers, Amal Khdair and Fawz Jabi. At the end of week two, we reflected on the beginning of the program and how TYO compared to their previous work and classroom experiences. Fawz, having previously taught in a private Nablus preschool, offered great insights on the differences between her previous teaching experience and her first two weeks at TYO.

Since you have taught in Nablus preschools before — what do you find different about TYO’s Core program?

When I taught in a Nablus preschool, you didn’t hear the word “child” as much when we talked about our work. The focus was on what we were teaching, not who. Our conversations as teachers centered around the content of our lessons, for example writing skills, reading the Quran, and basic math and counting skills.

Here at TYO, the word “child” is the center of every conversation. When we talk about planning lessons, we talk about how each activity helps the child grow, how it promotes his or her physical and mental well-being, and how it helps us understand the root causes of the child’s behavior.

The work environment is also very unique. At TYO, I have access to people coming from different backgrounds in both education and psychology, and everyone is involved in sharing classroom ideas and techniques. There is so much input behind every activity, that you can’t help but to feel confident when you finally have a chance to give that lesson.

What has been the most rewarding part of your first two weeks teaching in TYO’s Core program?

The more rewarding – and I would say surprising – experience has been teaching hands-on Arabic lessons. Because I have taught Arabic for this age before, that is where I can clearly see the contrast between my previous work and TYO.

At the preschool where I previously taught, we followed rigid lesson plans that did not invite creativity from the kids or from us as teachers. At TYO, I worked with Ahmad [another TYO Core teacher] to develop an art-based lesson plan for teaching the first few letters of the alphabet. I enjoyed teaching the lesson, but the most rewarding part was the day after, when the kids returned remembering everything we had taught the day before.

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Core teachers Fawz and Ahmad work together on an Arabic lesson.

Do you see any difference in the kids in TYO’s Core program versus those you taught previously?

The children are not fundamentally different, especially not at such a young age. However, the environment at TYO is very different than a traditional preschool, and it brings out a different side of the kids.

I taught in a well-known private preschool, so all of our children had their basic material needs met. Additionally, their parents were willing to invest financially in their education. However, that financial commitment did not mean that the parents were truly engaged in their child’s development; on the contrary, I saw how the parents’ focus on investing [financially] in academics caused them to neglect other aspects of the their child’s life, like the importance of play and creativity.

At TYO, our children come in at very different levels of academic abilities, reading and letter/word recognition, speaking abilities, etc. Additionally, most of our kids come from a difficult home environment that does not offer options outside of the norm of frustration and violence. What amazes me is that that background does not limit their capacity to learn. For example, because of their restrictive home and neighborhood environments, many of the boys in our program struggle with hyperactivity. However, as teachers we learn how to embrace their energy and encourage them to put it towards something positive; we learn how to turn their energy and hunger for new experiences into curiosity to learn. It is much more challenging for me as a teacher, but it is also more rewarding.

 

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